News standing for good news not Unix which of course is recursive because then to.
Go back into canoe you see good news not Unix good news not Unix and that was started by Richard Stallman and he is responsible for the.
Ideas of free software not free is in no cost but free is in freedom that we have today and also.
He was responsible for making sure there was the new C compiler the new see runtime library and lots of lots of other tools that were used to able to be able to build a free version of UNIX without relying on the BSD files or relying on the AT&T files and also it’s worth mention there.
Was another operating system called MINIX which was written by Andrew Tannenbaum and he was using this as an educational tool to teach students the fundamentals of operating system design so you’ve got system.
Released publicly you’ve got MINIX and you’ve got the new tools so in Finland in the early 1990s there was a student at university called Linus Torvalds and he had used MINIX and he knew about Unix and.
He wanted to overcome the the deficiencies that he saw him enix and write his own operating system and he did that and published it announce it to.
The world now there’s a key couple.
Of things about this announcement first of all it ran on PCs that’s 386 pcs so we’re not dealing with mainframes not dealing with supercomputers we’re dealing with something that maybe students can have in their house and.
That actually made it accessible to many people who are interested in doing OS development the other thing to note.
Is of course we’ve got all the tools that came from the ganoub projects you’ve got the compiler and the shell and all the things you need that came over from canoe and they were being able.
To be used by leanness to actually create the Linux kernel and also at the time that he actually published his announcement the Linux kernel was completely free of all MINIX code of course when Linux was developed it was developed using the same philosophy and the same model as the UNIX philosophy and the UNIX programming environment that came out of system 5 and BSD and quickly it gained support it.
Gained a lot of interest and really started to take off what in 1992 the X windowing system was ported over to the Linux kernel which means you could now have a desktop with Windows you’d open up multiple terminals and people really started to use it and that’s when I got on board I first used Linux when it was about version 0.98 I think we downloaded it at university we started using it on our piece these are.
Home to see what we could do with it and one other key thing is before we got to version one of Linux it had started using the GPL that’s the gue new public license that came with the free.
Software philosophy from the new foundation so now you have this open source free software that everybody is able to contribute to and now you wind fast forward to today and we can see that Linux is absolutely everywhere so the popularity of Linux is undisputed it runs at the heart of the Android.
Operating since that means literally there.
Are millions of people every day who are using Linux you’ve got it on servers 60% of those web servers on the internet are using Linux and of course you’ve got it in.
Things like Chrome OS and so on but to that in Linux isn’t a version of Unix it’s a clone of Unix or today they like to call it unix-like because UNIX was actually a product sold by AT&T through its system five branch and it was an operating system developed from Berkeley.
University so Linux is doesn’t use that source code.
But it uses that philosophy it’s a clone it’s unix-like so where are we today well obviously Linux is still used.
In many many places and BSD those BSD source codes kind of morphed into FreeBSD which you can download install on a PC even today and through various different kind.
Merges and workings you’ll find part of it even actually in Mac OS through next step and then down into the new version of Mac OS which Steve Jobs kicked off once he returned to the company so in that end actually you’ll find.
That the most popular version of UNIX used today is actually Mac OS.
So before I made this video I had a quick search with.
The whole Linux development tree and you can still find references back to Unix in the tree in.
Two particular cases one is in some files it will mention that the file originally came from Unix and however.
It’s now been rewritten and changed to be completely open-source.
Code and in second place there are many many interfaces many many ways that things work.
Of Unix that you still find in Linux and so therefore there are various.
Labels and various things are tagged as unique because actually that was the way that eunuch.
Way that Linux does it now I wanted to see how well this has stood up to history so I found some source code to ultrix 4.3 which is a version of the bsd unix that Dec released.
In the mid-80s and I took one of the files in there in this particular one it.
Was backgammon a a terminal.
Version of backgammon and then I copy the source file over onto my Raspberry Pi and then I tried compiling it to see what it would work now there were some differences in how the C compiler work today it took me about five.
Minutes to fix those and then voila I had a version of backgammon running on my Raspberry Pi from an original version of the source code that was released well how long ago is that thirty years.
Ago and it still works because Linux is a UNIX clone and the UNIX we.
Had then and the Unix Linux that we have now they are very very highly compatible of course that’s sort code compatible binary compatibility is a whole different.
Story there are some binary compatibility layers between various versions of Linux and FreeBSD and so on but let’s not worry about that now just to clarify a couple things at the end you know of course a Linux distributions are.
We talking like you know red hat or fedora or 1/2 or arch or whatever your favorite version links distribution is includes much more than just than in its kernel of course you’ve got a whole bunch of tools like you know the KDE desktop and the gnome desktop and things like libera office and Chrome and Firefox and all these things that are included and that’s absolutely fine.
And at the heart of it is the Linux kernel and FreeBSD is the same if you get a freebsd distribution it comes with the freebsd kernel which is based on the source code that was released by bsd 4.4 light but then on top of that you’ve got the desktop and applications like firefox or so on that are actually part of the greater ecosystem of free software okay so in summary unix is actually a product that.
Was sold by AT&T as a commercial product its source code.
Was licensed in the early days which means eventually we had some of the source code out in the public and that was used.
For operating systems like freebsd and to some extent like Mac OS which we have today Linux was written using MINIX as a way of writing a UNIX clone or a unix-like operating system and today it doesn’t share any files with the original versions of UNIX from back in the 70s and 80s and ultimately free software has won.
The day here because of course Linux is so popular not only on servers but also on smartphones so my name is Gary Sims and this is Garrick space I really hope you enjoyed this video if you did please do give it a thumbs up if you’ve got any questions about UNIX and Linux please ask me in the comments.
Below and I’ll try my best to reply you know what else I’m going to ask you to do please subscribe and please share this video on social media okay well that’s about it so I’ll see you in the next.